Menisci of the knee joint

The menisci and their insertions into bone entheses represent a functional unit. Thanks to their firm entheses, the menisci are able to distribute loads and therefore reduce the stresses on the tibia, a function which is regarded essential for cartilage protection and prevention of osteoarthrosis.

The tissue of the hypocellular meniscal body consists mainly of water and a dense elaborate type I collagen network with a predominantly circumferential alignment. The content of different collagens, proteoglycans and nonproteoglycan proteins shows significant regional variations probably reflecting functional adaptation. The meniscal horns are attached via meniscal insertional ligaments mainly to tibial bone.

At the enthesis, the fibres of the insertional ligaments attach to bone via uncalcified and calcified fibrocartilages. This anatomical configuration of gradual transition from soft to hard tissue, which is identical to other ligament entheses, is certainly essential for normal mechanical function and probably protects this vulnerable transition between 2 biomechanically different tissues from failure.

Clinical treatment of meniscal tears needs to be based on these special anatomical and functional characteristics. Partial meniscectomy will preserve some of the load distribution function of the meniscus only when the meniscal body enthesis entity is preserved. Repair of peripheral longitudinal tears will heal and probably preserve the load distribution function of the meniscus, whereas radial tears through the whole meniscal periphery or more central and complex tears may be induced to heal, but probably do not preserve the load distribution function.

There is no proof that replacement of the meniscus with an allograft can reestablish some of the important meniscal functions, and thereby prevent or reduce the development of osteoarthrosis which is common after meniscectomy.

After implantation, major problems are the remodelling of the graft to inferior structural, biochemical and mechanical properties and its insufficient fixation to bone which fails to duplicate a normal anatomical configuration and therefore a functional meniscal enthesis. Abstract The menisci and their insertions into bone entheses represent a functional unit.

Publication types Review.The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of tough, rubbery cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between your shinbone and thighbone.

It can be torn if you suddenly twist your knee while bearing weight on it. A torn meniscus is one of the most common knee injuries. Any activity that causes you to forcefully twist or rotate your knee, especially when putting your full weight on it, can lead to a torn meniscus.

Repair Your MENISCUS TEAR Without Surgery!!! PRP Treatment For Meniscus Tears (NYC)

Each of your knees has two C-shaped pieces of cartilage that act like a cushion between your shinbone and your thighbone menisci. A torn meniscus causes pain, swelling and stiffness. You also might feel a block to knee motion and have trouble extending your knee fully. Conservative treatment — such as rest, ice and medication — is sometimes enough to relieve the pain of a torn meniscus and give the injury time to heal on its own. In other cases, however, a torn meniscus requires surgical repair.

Contact your doctor if your knee is painful or swollen, or if you can't move your knee in the usual ways. A torn meniscus can result from any activity that causes you to forcefully twist or rotate your knee, such as aggressive pivoting or sudden stops and turns.

The menisci of the knee joint in human foetuses of manipur population--a morphological study.

Even kneeling, deep squatting or lifting something heavy can sometimes lead to a torn meniscus. In older adults, degenerative changes of the knee can contribute to a torn meniscus with little or no trauma. Performing activities that involve aggressive twisting and pivoting of the knee puts you at risk of a torn meniscus.

The risk is particularly high for athletes — especially those who participate in contact sports, such as football, or activities that involve pivoting, such as tennis or basketball. A torn meniscus can lead to a feeling of your knee giving way, inability to move your knee normally or persistent knee pain.

You might be more likely to develop osteoarthritis in the injured knee. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.

menisci of the knee joint

This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Torn meniscus Open pop-up dialog box Close. Torn meniscus The meniscus is a C-shaped piece of tough, rubbery cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between your shinbone and thighbone. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic.

Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Cardone DA, et al. Meniscal injury of the knee.

Arthroscopy of the knee joint for meniscus injury: description of methods and techniques

Accessed Oct. Meniscal tears. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

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Meniscal tear. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; Related Torn meniscus. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.A meniscus injury is one of the most common knee injuries.

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Most often it occurs in athletes and able-bodied people aged years. Arthroscopy is the best treatment for knee injuries. This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that is characterized by low trauma.

The surgeon performs all manipulations through small incisions, under visual control for this, an arthroscope with a camera is inserted into the joint cavity. Arthroscopic intervention is indicated for serious injuries of the knee joint when doctors suspect or have already detected damage to the intra-articular structures. Arthroscopy can be performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In the second, it makes it possible to restore the integrity of the structures of the knee joint without opening the articular cavity and minimally injuring soft tissues.

Arthroscopy is used for significant damage to the menisci when conservative treatment is ineffective. Whenever possible, doctors try to perform partial resection of the meniscus, its plastic, or suture.

At the same time, plastic surgery and resection preserve the function of the knee and avoid cartilage degeneration after surgery. Even at the stage of planning a surgical intervention, the patient undergoes a series of tests and undergoes a full examination.

In the absence of contraindications, the doctor appoints the date of the operation and tells how to properly prepare for it. During preparation, the patient should carefully follow all the recommendations of a specialist. The patient is premedicated minutes before the administration of painkillers.

Its essence lies in the administration of tranquilizers and Hyposensitization drugs. Premedication reduces patient anxiety and enhances the effect of anesthetic drugs. Meniscus arthroscopic interventions are usually performed under spinal or regional anesthesia.

In the first case, pain relievers are injected into the spine and thereby block the nerve roots that are responsible for the innervation of the lower limb. In the second case, the femoral and sciatic nerves are blocked, infiltrating the nearby soft tissues with anesthetics. In rare cases, for special indications, the operation is performed under general anesthesia. In this case, anesthetics are administered intravenously, and the patient is on spontaneous breathing or breathes through a laryngeal mask.

Local anesthesia for arthroscopy is rarely used due to its weak analgesic effect and short duration. The operation begins with anesthesia and treatment of the operating field. This is necessary in order to prevent the introduction of infection into the synovial cavity, where manipulations are carried out. All arthroscopic procedures are performed under visual control.

To visualize intra-articular structures, an arthroscope is introduced into the articular cavity, which is a tube and an eyepiece head rigidly connected to each other. The image from the arthroscope is displayed in the operating room, which allows the surgeon to control his actions, and the patient to observe the progress of the surgical intervention.A meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that, in contrast to an articular disconly partly divides a joint cavity.

Generally, the term "meniscus" is used to refer to the cartilage of the kneeeither to the lateral or medial meniscus. Both are cartilaginous tissues that provide structural integrity to the knee when it undergoes tension and torsion. The menisci are also known as "semi-lunar" cartilages, referring to their half-moon, crescent shape. The menisci of the knee are two pads of fibrocartilaginous tissue which serve to disperse friction in the knee joint between the lower leg tibia and the thigh femur.

They are concave on the top and flat on the bottom, articulating with the tibia. They are attached to the small depressions fossae between the condyles of the tibia intercondyloid fossaand towards the center they are unattached and their shape narrows to a thin shelf. Blood flow decreases with age and the central meniscus is avascular by adulthood, leading to very poor healing rates.

The menisci act to disperse the weight of the body and reduce friction during movement. Since the condyles of the femur and tibia meet at one point which changes during flexion and extensionthe menisci spread the load of the body's weight. In sports and orthopedicspeople sometimes speak of "torn cartilage" and will actually be referring to an injury to one of the menisci. There are two general types of meniscus injuries: acute tears that are often the result of trauma or a sports injury and chronic or wear-and-tear type tears.

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Acute tears have many different shapes vertical, horizontal, radial, oblique, complex and sizes. They are often treated with surgical repair depending upon the patient's age as they rarely heal on their own. Chronic tears are treated symptomatically: physical therapy with or without the addition of injections and anti-inflammatory medications. If the tear causes continued pain, swelling, or knee dysfunction, then the tear can be removed or repaired surgically.

The unhappy triad is a set of commonly co-occurring knee injuries which includes injury to the medial meniscus. Conservative management is often considered first for a smaller or chronic tear that does not appear to require surgical repair. It consists of activity modification or physical therapy to strengthen and increase the range of motion.

Two surgeries of the meniscus are most common. Depending on the type and location of the tear, the patient's age, and physician's preference, injured menisci are usually either repaired or removed, in part or completely meniscectomy. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Many studies show the meniscus serves a purpose and therefore doctors will attempt to repair when possible.

menisci of the knee joint

However, the meniscus has poor blood supply, and, therefore, healing can be difficult. A clinical practice guideline strongly recommends against surgery in nearly all patients with degenerative knee disease. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Meniscus disambiguation.

Main article: Tear of meniscus. This article uses anatomical terminology. MeniscusStedman's 27th ed. The New England Journal of Medicine. Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 27th edition. Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved Cluett, Jonathan February 10, Customer reviews do more than just provide feedback. They can shape consumer behavior, improve your SEO, increase your conversion rate, and most of all, they increase trust - a quality that all companies can improve upon.

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Meniscus (anatomy)

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menisci of the knee joint

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